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2.1 Database Management System Class 10


2.1  Database Management System

Data refers to the collection of raw facts and figures that may or mayn’t give any sense. Eg: Ram, 16, years are data.

Information is the Processed or refined data that gives a complete sense. Information is an organized collection of related data, which gives a complete sense. “Ram is a student. He is 20 years old.”, is information that gives a complete sense.

Data Processing

The process of getting useful information from data by processing data with the help of database software is called data processing.

Database is simply organised collection of related data arranged in a specific order so that it can be easily access, managed or updated. E.g. Flight schedule Dictionary, Marks Ledger, Telephone Directory etc.

Advantage of database

Ø  It allows sharing large volume of data

Ø  It allows searching of data quickly

Ø  It reduces data duplication

Ø  It allows advance filtering of data


DBMS (Database Management System)

DBMS is a software which is used to store the data, process them and provide the useful information to the user. It involves in creating, modifying, deleting and adding data in database. Eg: Dbase, Fox Pro, Ms- Access, Oracle, Sybase, FoxBASE, SQL

 DBMS is a software which helps to extract, view and manipulate data in an organized way. In DBMS, data can be accessed, managed and updated easily. E.g.: MS-Access, Oracle, Fox pro, Dbase etc.

Advantage of DBMS.

ž  Reduce data redundancy

ž  Control data consistency: (anychange made in one file automatically done in all field)

ž  Facilitates sharing of data

ž  Ensure data security

ž  Maintain data integrity: (make sure that database accept only the valid data)

Disadvantage of DBMS

ž  Required H/W and S/W are expensive.

ž  Costly and time-consuming procedures

ž  High operating cost

ž  Qualified persons are required to operate.

ž  Difficult to recover backup

Computerized Database

a) It can store large volume of data. It is very fast to find a specific record.
b) Data can be sorted into ascending or descending order on multiple criteria.
c) The database can be kept secure by use of passwords.
d) We can search data very easily.
e) Modification is very easy in comparison of manual database.
Non-Computerized Database
a) It is limited by physical storage available.
b) It can take a while to manually search through all of the records.
c) Difficult to sort data on more than one criteria.
d) The only security would be locking up the records.

Elements of Database

ž  Field: Field is the topic name under which records are stored. It is found in column wise. A column in database is called field. For eg: Name, Age,Gender.

ž  Record: A piece of information under the related fields about any person, place, organization or anything. For eg: Ram , 15, male.

ž  Table: A table is collection of records or group  of records. It contains no. of rows and columns.

ž  Tuple: A record row in database is called Tuple

Types of DBMS

         RDBMS (Relational Database Management system)

         ODBMS (Object-oriented Database Management system)

         DDBMS (Distributed Database Management System)

         HDBMS (Hierarchical  Database Management System)

RDBMS (Relational Database Management System)
RDBMS is a database management system that is based on the relation model in which data is stored in the form of tables and the relationship among the data is also stored in the form of tables.
E.g.: SQL, MS-Access, Oracle, etc.
MS-Access is a relational database management system developed by Microsoft Corporation which is used to store and manipulates large volume of data in the form of table.
Features of MS-Access
a) IT is simplest and most flexible DBMS solution today.

b) it is easy to search and find the data.
c) Forms are used for viewing and editing the information.
d) Reports are used for summarizing and printing the data.

e) It provides the flexible ways to add, edit, delete and display the related data.

f) Queries help to view, change and analyses the data indifferent ways
Objects of MS-Access
a) Table
b) Form
c) Query
d) Report

e) Pages

f) Macro

g) Module
a) Table

A table is the primary object of Ms-Access database. It is used to store data. A database may contain one or more table. It is an object of MS-Access that stores large volume of data in the form of rows and columns. The different ways to create table are:
i) Design view
ii) Using wizard
iii) Entering data
Importance of table
a) it is used to store the data.

b) Different properties of a field can be set in a table.
c) It provides options for primary key which helps to make data consistent.
Record is complete set of information. Record is a collection of multiple related fields in a row which gives complete information about a person or thing. E.g.: Khem Pokhara 1234567890
Field is a small unit of information. A column in a table is called field, and it contains a specific piece of information within a record. E.g.: Name, Address, Telephone

b)     Query:

 A query is an object of MS-access database which is used to retrieve and display the records from a table or multiple tables based on specified condition.

Importance of query.

Ø  It is use to retrieve and display the records of a table.

Ø  It allow us to view, change and analyze the data in various ways.

c)      Form:

Form is an object of Ms-Access that provides a quick and easy way to insert and modify records into our database.

Importance of form

Ø  To allow users to perform data entry.

Ø  To edit, update or delete the data.

Ø  To provide a way customize the presentation of data in the database.

d)     Report:

Report is an object of MS-Access database that is used to organize and present the data in an effective and understandable form.

Importance of report

Ø  It is used to organize and summarize  the data in an effective form.

Ø  It present the data for viewing online and printing.

e) Pages: used to enter or view data from website or internet

f) Macros: small program to automate repetitive task.

g) Modules: stores a programming codes.

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